Nikolay Yakovlevich Afanasyev (Russian: Николай Яковлевич Афанасьев; January 12, 1821 [O.S. December 31, 1820] – June 3 [O.S. May 22] 1898) was an Imperial Russian violin virtuoso and composer. His memoirs 'Vospominaniya' ('Reminiscences') appeared in 1890, and recorded his experiences as a touring musician, as part of a panorama of Russian musical life during the mid 19th century. He became an honorary member of the Russian Musical Society in 1896.