François-Clément Théodore Dubois was a French composer, organist and music teacher, born in Rosnay in Marne. He studied under Louis Fanartand later at the Paris Conservatoire under Ambroise Thomas. He won the Prix de Rome in 1861 and in 1868, became choirmaster at the Church of the Madeleine, In 1871 he took over from César Franck as choirmaster at the Basilica of Sainte-Clotilde. In 1877, Dubois returned to the Church of the Madeleine, succeeding Camille Saint-Saëns as organist there. From 1871 he taught at the Paris Conservatoire, where his pupils included Pierre de Bréville, Gabrielle Ferrari, Gustave Doret, Paul Dukas, Achille Fortier, Xavier Leroux, Albéric Magnard,Édouard Risler, Guy Ropartz, Spyridon Samaras, and Florent Schmitt. Dubois was director of the Conservatoire from 1896 to 1905. He resigned two months before the refusal to award the Prix de Rome to Maurice Ravel; this created, nonetheless, a substantial public outcry against him, which was increased by an open letter from the novelist and musicologist Romain Rolland. Gabriel Fauré took over as director.