Émile-Jean-Joseph Vuillermoz was a French critic in the areas of music, film, drama and literature. He was also a composer, but abandoned this for criticism. Émile Vuillermoz was born in Lyon in 1878. He studied literature and law at University of Lyon, then became a music student at the Conservatoire de Paris, his teachers being Jules Massenet, Gabriel Fauré, Antoine Taudou and Daniel Fleuret. Among his fellow students was Maurice Ravel, who became his lifelong friend. He was a member of Les Apaches, along with Ravel, Igor Stravinsky, Manuel de Falla and others.