Opera / Operetta

Opera is an art form that combines music and text in a theatrical setting. It is one of the main pillars of the Western musical tradition, arising in Italy at the end of the 16th century and soon spreading to the rest of Europe. Being one of the most important musical expressions of the time, it was soon adapted by composers from all regions, which resulted in the development of several styles. Though opera arguably started out as a court practice, it quickly spread to other spheres of popular domain, blending elements of tragedy and comedy. The latter were purged out with the establishment of the so called Opera Seria as the dominant form of opera. However, the excessive musical embellishment and virtuosity that eventually came to characterize Opera Seria led to a subsequent reform by Christoph Willibald Gluck, who advocated that all elements (music, ballet, staging) should be subservient to the overriding drama, and argued for a more austere form of music. One of the defining figures in classical Opera is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who composed both serious and comic operas, and elevated the art to limits with no precedents. The 19th century saw the rise of several trends (bel canto, verisimo, and several nationalistic styles). Possible the most important contributions to opera were done by Giuseppe Verdi in Italy, and Richard Wagner in Germany, with the latter developing the concept of Gesamtkunstwerk ("complete work of art") which combined music, poetry, theater, and painting, resulting in colossal, philosophically deep works. Wagner redifined the opera as a way of approaching music (and art), and his influence was inescapable. The 20th century was characterized by several forms of experimentation, including but not limited to serialism, minimalism, and experimentation with electronic music.

Composers

Adolphe Adam Adolphe Deslandres Adrien Talexy Adrien Barthe Alban Berg Alban Förster Albert Roussel Albert Cahen Albert Hermann Dietrich Albert Vizentini Alberto Franchetti Aleksandr Dargomyzhsky Alessandro Scarlatti Alexander Borodin Alexander Julius Paul Dorn Alexander von Zemlinsky Alfred Bachelet Alfred Bruneau Alfred Cellier Alfred George Wathall Alfred Zamara Alfredo Catalani Alphons Czibulka Amadeo Vives Amédée Dutacq Amherst Webber Amilcare Ponchielli Amy Woodforde-Finden André Campra André Cardinal Destouches André Ernest Modeste Grétry André Messager André Wormser Andrea Bernasconi Ange Flégier Ange-Marie Auzende Angelo Bettinelli Antoine Dauvergne Anton Arensky Anton Rubinstein Antonín Dvořák Antonio Bartolomeo Bruni Antonio Boroni Antonio Cagnoni Antonio Cesti Antonio Lotti Antonio Vivaldi Antony Choudens Apolinar Brull Armand Des Roseaux Arnold Schoenberg Arrigo Boito Arthur Coquard Arthur Honegger Arthur Sullivan Attilio Ariosti August Bungert August de Boeck August Enna August Weweler Auguste Catouillard Auguste Cœdès Auguste Dupont Auguste Vaucorbeil Baldassare Galuppi Bedřich Smetana Béla Bartók Benedetto Marcello Benoit Constant Fauconier C. Chaulier Camille Erlanger Camille Saint-Saëns Carl August Nielsen Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf Carl Gottlieb Reissiger Carl Heinrich Carsten Reinecke Carl Loewe Carl Maria von Weber Carl Nielsen Carl Wilhelm August Blum Carl Zeller Carlo Coccia Casimir Baille Castil-Blaze Célanie Carissan César Cui César Franck Charles Dancla Charles Albert White Charles Dibdin Charles Gounod Charles Lefebvre Charles Villiers Stanford Charles Vincent Charles Vogel Charles Wakefield Cadman Charles-Marie Widor Charles-Simon Catel Christoph Ernst Friedrich Weyse Christoph Graupner Christoph Willibald Gluck Claudio Monteverdi Claudius Blanc Clemens von Franckenstein Conradin Kreutzer Daniel François Esprit Auber Daniel Léo Simpson Domenico Cimarosa Domenico Corri Domenico Fischietti Domenico Freschi Dominique Della-Maria Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Ernst II E. L. Fulton Edmond Audran Edmond Chérouvrier Edmond Diet Edmond Waucampt Édouard Lalo Edvard Grieg Egidio Duni Eleanor Everest Freer Émile Bernard Émile Bourgeois Émile Pessard Emilio Arrieta Emmanuel Chabrier Engelbert Humperdinck Enrique Granados Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari Ernest Boulanger Ernest Chausson Ernest Claments Ernst Wilhelm Wolf Ethel Smyth Eugen d' Albert Eugène Cools Eugène Diaz Eva Dell'Acqua Federico Chueca Felice Alessandri Félicien David Felix Albini Felix Draeseke Félix Fourdrain Felix Mendelssohn Felix Weingartner Ferdinand Hummel Ferdinand Fränzl Ferdinand Hérold Ferdinand Ries Ferenc Erkel Ferruccio Busoni Firmin Bernicat Florine Dezède Frances Allitsen Francesco Araja Francesco Bendusi Francesco Bianchi Francesco Cavalli Francesco Federici II Francesco Feo Francesco Zannetti Francis Chassaigne Francisco Asenjo Barbieri Franco Alfano François Adrien Boieldieu
François Bazin Francois Devienne Frank Osmond Carr Franz Berwald Franz Joseph Haydn Franz Liszt Franz Schmidt Franz Schreker Franz Schubert Franz Von Suppé Frederic Emes Clay Frederic Field Bullard Frederic Hymen Cowen Frederick Delius Frederick Shepherd Converse Friedrich Kuhlau Friedrich Ludwig Aemilius Kunzen Friedrich Ludwig Benda Friedrich von Flotow Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Benda Fromental Halévy Gabriel Dupont Gabriel Fauré Gabriel Pierné Gabrielle Ferrari Gaetano Cipollini Gaetano Coronaro Gaetano Donizetti Gaspar Villate Gaspare Spontini Gaston Salvayre Gennaro Astarita Georg Friedrich Händel George Enescu George Frederick Bristow George Gershwin George Henschel George Michael Cohan George Schleiffarth George Whitefield Chadwick Georges Bizet Georges Douay Georges Hüe Giacomo Meyerbeer Giacomo Puccini Gilbert-Louis Duprez Gioachino Antonio Rossini Giovanni Valentini (of Naples) Giovanni Battista Ferrandini Giovanni Battista Pergolesi Giovanni Bononcini Giovanni Bottesini Giovanni Marco Rutini Giovanni Simone Mayr Girolamo Abos Giulio Caccini Giuseppe Antonio Vincenzo Aldrovandini Giuseppe de Bottis Giuseppe Farinelli Giuseppe Mascia Giuseppe Verdi Godefroid Camauër Gustav Holst Gustave Canoby Gustave Charpentier Gustave Doret Hans von Zois Harold Fraser-Simson Hart Pease Danks Hartenack Otto Conrad Zinck Havergal Brian Hector Berlioz Heinrich Zöllner Heinrich Berté Heinrich Carl Ebell Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber Henri Berény Henri Desmarets Henri François Robert Brandts Buys Henri-Montan Berton Henry Carey Henry Purcell Henry Rowley Bishop Herman Bemberg Hermann Zumpe Hippolyte André Jean Baptiste Chélard Hippolyte Duprat Hjalmar Borgstrøm Hugo Felix Hugo Wolf Hyacinthe Eléonore Klosé Ignaz Brüll Ingeborg Bronsart Isaac Albéniz Isidor Bajić Isidore Witmark Ivan Caryll Ivan Zajc J. Marc Chautagne Jacopo Peri Jacques Aubert Jacques Offenbach James Hook Jan Blockx Jan Brandts Buys Jane Vieu Jean Baptiste Lully Jean Baptiste van den Eeden Jean Conte Jean Cras Jean Paul Egide Martini Jean-Baptiste Weckerlin Jean-Frédéric Edelmann Jean-Philippe Rameau Jenő Hubay Jerome Kern Jiří Antonín Benda Joachim Raff Joaquín Cassadó Johann Brandl Johann Christian Bach Johann Christoph Vogel Johann Ernst Eberlin Johann Franz Xaver Sterkel Johann Friedrich Agricola Johann Friedrich Hugo von Dalberg Johann Friedrich Reichardt Johann Heinrich Bonawitz Johann Joseph Abert Johann Joseph Fux Johann Nepomuk Hummel Johann Strauss Jr John Barnett John Blow John Christopher Pepusch John Farmer John Lewis Browne John Morgan Bentley Joseph Augustine Wade Joseph Bodin de Boismortier Joseph Bologne Saint-Georges Joseph Canteloube Joseph Marie Felix Blangini Joseph Mazzinghi Joseph Weigl Joseph Williams Joseph Woelfl Jules Berleur Jules Bovéry Jules Cohen Jules Costé Jules Duprato Jules Massenet Julian Edwards Julius Bechgaard Julius Benedict Julius Bittner Julius Bleichmann Julius Eichberg Julius Zaiczek-Blankenau Justin Clérice Karel Bendl Karel Weis Karl Goldmark Karl Michael Ziehrer Karl Weinberger
Karol Szymanowski Kenneth S. Clark L. Frank Baum Leo Blech Léo Delibes Leo Fall Léon Vasseur Léon Vercken Leonardo Vinci Leopold de Wenzel Louis Adolphe Coerne Louis Aubert Louis Clapisson Louis de La Coste Louis Diehl Louis Ferdinand Gottschalk Louis Spohr Louis Varney Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray Louis-Antoine Dubost Louise Bertin Ludvig Zinck Ludwig Engländer Ludwig van Beethoven Luigi Bordèse Luigi Cherubini Manuel de Falla Manuel Fernández Caballero Marc Antonio Ziani Marc-Antoine Charpentier Marcel Bertrand Maria Antonia Walpurgis Marin Marais Marius Carman Martin Pierre Dalvimare Mary Fauche Maurice Bourges Maurice Ravel Max Bruch Michael Arne Michael Haydn Michael William Balfe Michel Pignolet de Montéclair Michele Carafa Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka Modest Mussorgsky Napoléon-Joseph Colbert Niccolò Antonio Zingarelli Niccolò van Westerhout Nicholas Charles Bochsa Nicola Vaccai Nicola Antonio Porpora Nicola Conforto Nicolas Dalayrac Nicolas Daneau Nicolas Dezède Nicolo Isouard Niels Gade Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov Noah Brandt Oscar von Chelius Oscar Weil Oskar Nedbal Otto Nicolai Pascal Collasse Pasquale Anfossi Pasquale Cafaro Pasquale Mario Costa Paul Bliss Paul Didier Paul Dukas Paul Hastings Allen Paul Lacôme d'Estalenx Paul Vidal Paul von Klenau Paul Wranitzky Pauline Viardot Pavel Blaramberg Percy Eastman Fletcher Percy Grainger Peter Cornelius Peter von Winter Philippe Bellenot Philippe Gaubert Pierre Gaveaux Pierre Montan Berton Pierre-Louis Deffès Pietro Andrea Ziani Pietro Antonio Coppola Pietro Floridia Procida Bucalossi Pyotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky Rafael Calleja Raffaele Delli Ponti Ralph Lyman Baldwin Ralph Vaughan Williams Resurrección María de Azkue Reynaldo Hahn Riccardo Broschi Riccardo Zandonai Richard Strauss Richard Tauber Richard Wagner Richard Wüerst Robert Cambert Robert Hood Bowers Robert Nathaniel Emmerich Robert Schumann Rodolphe Berger Rodolphe Kreutzer Rudolf Bial Rudolf Dellinger Ruggiero Leoncavallo Ruperto Chapí Salvador Viniegra y Lasso de la Vega Samuel Arnold Samuel David Saverio Mercadante Scott Joplin Serafino Amedeo De Ferrari Sergei Prokofiev Sergei Rachmaninoff Sergei Taneyev Sergey Yuferov Siegfried Wagner Sigismond Thalberg Simon Bucharoff Stanislao Falchi Stanislas Champein Théodore Dubois Thomas Augustine Arne Thomas Campion Thomas Carter Thomas Christian Walter Thomas Hamly Butler Thomas O'Brien Butler Thomas Walker Tomás Bretón Tomás Giribaldi Valentin Zubiaurre Valentino Fioravanti Various Victor Alphonse Duvernoy Victor Herbert Victor Massé Vincent d' Indy Vincenzo Valente Vincenzo Bellini Vincenzo Federici Vincenzo Legrenzio Ciampi Vittorio Baravalle Waldemar von Baussnern Walter Braunfels Walter Bromme Wilhelmine Von Bayreuth William Boyce William Chaumet William Henry Fry William Kipp Bassford William Vincent Wallace Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Xaver Scharwenka Xavier Boisselot Xavier Leroux Yevstigney Fomin Zdeněk Fibich