Etude

An étude (French for 'study') is a solo instrumental piece. Originally études were conceived as technical exercises, focusing on a particular technique and structured to work as practice material for perfecting a particular skill. During the 19th century, the growing popularity of the piano as a home instrument helped develop a tradition of etude-writing, that culminated with études becoming concert pieces. Nowadays, certain sets of études are still used in a pedagogical context (such as those by Sor, or Clementi), while études by composers such as Chopin, Liszt, or Debussy, have acquired a repertoire status, and proven to be among the most difficult pieces in the repertoire.

Composers

Adam Darr Adolfo Fumagalli Adolph Baumbach Adolphe David Agathe Backer-Grøndahl Agostino Belloli Alba Rosa Viëtor Albert Heinrich Albert Ketèlbey Albrecht Blumenstengel Aleksandr Glazunov Aleksey Yanshinov Alessandro Rolla Alexander Scriabin Alexander Wunderer Alexandre Dubuque Alexandre Tansman Anatoly Lyadov Angelo Michele Bertalotti Antoine Bruyant Anton Arensky Anton Bemetzrieder Anton Bernhard Fürstenau Anton Diabelli Anton Reicha Antonio Bazzini Antonio Cano Aristo Cassinelli Artem Andreasyan Arthur de Greef Arthur Foote Arturo Cuccoli Attilio Ariosti Auguste Franchomme Bartolomeo Campagnoli Bedřich Smetana Béla Bartók Bernhard Cossmann Bernhard Wolff Blair Fairchild Bohuslav Martinů Camille Saint-Saëns Carl August Nielsen Carl Baermann Jr. Carl Bohm Carl Czerny Carl Faelten Carl Flesch Carl Heinrich Carsten Reinecke Carl Nielsen Carl Tausig Carl Venth Carl Wilhelm August Blum Carlo Besozzi Carlo Broschi Carlo Zuccari Carolus Aggházy Cécile Chaminade César A. de Casella Charles Dancla Charles Delioux Charles Fradel Charles Ives Charles Vollweiler Charles Voss Charles-Auguste de Bériot Charles-Valentin Alkan Christoph Ernst Friedrich Weyse Claude Debussy Daniel Léo Simpson David Toub Derek Bell Dionisio Aguado y García Domenico Cimarosa Domenico Crivelli Domenico Scarlatti Dudley Buck Edgar A. Brazelton Edmund Neupert Édouard Broustet Edouard Chavagnat Édouard Wolff Edward Elgar Edward MacDowell Emanuel de Beaupuis Emil Kreuz Emile-Robert Blanchet Emmanuel Rhené-Baton Ernest Depas Ernest Frederic Wagner Ernesto Drangosch Eugen d' Albert Eugene Anthiome Federigo Fiorillo Felix Blumenfeld Felix Mendelssohn Ferdinand Beyer Ferdinand Büchler Ferdinand David Ferdinand Quentin Dulcken Ferdinand Ries Ferdinando Bonamici Fernando Sor Ferruccio Busoni Florent Schmitt Francesco Molino Francisco Tárrega François Couperin François Joseph Dizi František Ondříček Franz Anton Hoffmeister
Franz Berwald Franz Liszt Franz Schubert Franz Thaddäus Blatt Franz Wilhelm Ferling Franz Wohlfahrt Frédéric Chopin Frédéric Wachs Frederick L. Crane Friedrich Burgmüller Friedrich Dotzauer Friedrich Grützmacher Friedrich Wieck Fritz Kreisler Gabriel Fauré Gabriel Pierné Gasparo Sborgi Gaylord Yost Georg Carl Bohlmann Georg Eggeling George Elbridge Whiting George James Webb George Whitefield Chadwick Georges Cucuël Georgy Catoire Géza Zichy Giacobbe Basevi Cervetto Gilbert A. Alcock Gioachino Antonio Rossini Girolamo Crescentini Giulio Regondi Giuseppe Aprile Giuseppe Concone Giuseppe Ferrata Giuseppe Tartini Giustino Barletta Gottfried Weber Gustav Adolf Merkel Hans Fährmann Hans Wessely Hartenack Otto Conrad Zinck Heinrich Friedrich Enckhausen Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst Heitor Villa-Lobos Henri Bertini Henri Louis Charles Duvernoy Henri Vieuxtemps Henri Wieniawski Herbert Straus Gardner Hermann Adolf Wollenhaupt Hermann Berens Hermann Erler Homer Newton Bartlett Hubert Léonard Hugo Anson Hugo Reinhold Hyacinthe Eléonore Klosé Ignaz Brüll Ignaz Moscheles Isaac Albéniz J. Franz Jacopo Foroni Jacques Féréol Mazas Jacques-Louis Battmann Jakob Dont James Bellak James Lyon Jan Brandts Buys Jan Ladislav Dussek Jāzeps Vītols Jean Conte Jean Delphin Alard Jean-Baptiste Bréval Jean-Baptiste Duvernoy Jenő Hubay Joachim Andersen Joachim Raff João Domingos Bomtempo Johann Anton André Johann Baptist Cramer Johann Carl Eschmann Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach Johann Diebold Johann Kaspar Mertz Johann Nepomuk Hummel Johann Sebastian Bach Johann Wenzel Kalliwoda Johannes Brahms John Christopher Pepusch John Erhardt Weipert John Walsh John Weldon John White José Ferrer José Vianna da Motta Josef Werner Joseph Ascher Joseph Henri Altès Joseph Mayseder Joseph von Blumenthal Joseph White József Bloch Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga Jules Cohen Jules Demersseman Jules Domerc Julio Salvador Sagreras Julius Benedict Julius Weissenborn Karl Heinrich Döring Karol Szymanowski
Konstantin Antipov Léon Boëllmann Louis Adolphe Coerne Louis Brassin Louis Campbell-Tipton Louis Eller Louis Gobbaerts Louis James Alfred Lefébure-Wély Louis Moreau Gottschalk Louis R. Feuillard Louis Spohr Louis-Désiré Besozzi Louis-François Dauprat Ludvig Birkedal-Barfod Ludvig Schytte Ludwig Abel Ludwig Berger Ludwig Wiedemann Luigi Concone Luigi Forino Maarten Smit Manuel Alejandre Prada Marco Anzoletti Marco Bordogni Marco Enrico Bossi Marietta Brambilla Matteo Carcassi Maurice Ravel Mauro Giuliani Max Reger Maxime Alphonse Michel Rondeau Miles Coyle Mily Balakirev Moritz Moszkowski Mrs. Crosby Adams Muzio Clementi Napoleón Coste Narcisse Bousquet Niccolò Dôthel Niccolò Paganini Nicholas Charles Bochsa Nicola Vaccai Nicolas-Lambert Wéry Nils Chrisander O. S. Adams Ole Bull Oscar Beringer Oscar Brückner Oscar Franz Otakar Sevčík Pablo Vidal Pandora Selfridge Paul Bazelaire Paul Dukas Paul Zilcher Pauline Viardot Pedro Miguel Abreu Peter Cavallo Peter Henri van der Weyde Philippe Courras Pierre Baillot Pierre Gaviniès Pierre Rode Pietro Yon Raffaele d' Alessandro Ralph Vaughan Williams Reinhold Vorpahl René Chesnet Reynaldo Hahn Richard Kram Richard Strauss Robert Bremner Robert Emile Bockmühl Robert Schumann Roderich Bass Rodolphe Kreutzer Rudolf Willmers Samuel Arnold Samuel Wise Selim Palmgren Semyon Aksyonov Sergei Prokofiev Sergei Rachmaninoff Sigfrid Karg-Elert Sigismond Thalberg Stanislas Verroust Stephen Heller Teresa Carreño Theobald Boehm Theodor Döhler Theodor Kullak Thérèse Wartel Thomas Aptommas Thomas Walter Tommaso Giordani Tranquille Berbiguier Various Vasily Vurm Vincenzo Corbellini Vincenzo Tobia Nicola Bellini Vladislav Blazhevich Wilhelm Valentin Volckmar William Babell William Baines William Edmund William Sterndale Bennett William Vincent Wallace Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Xaver Scharwenka Zdeněk Fibich