Orchestra

The orchestra is an instrumental ensemble that may contain sections of string, woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments, with the occasional addition of instruments such as keyboards, harps, or electric instruments. It could be considered as the pinnacle ensemble in Western musical tradition, because of the variety and complexity of its repertoire, the rich possibilities it offers in terms of sonority, and its elastic structure and composition. The orchestra consolidated in this position during the 18th and 19th century, and the 20th and 21st centuries saw its inclusion in mass media such as film music, video game music, television, etc. Orchestras may vary in size from chamber ensembles (than can have around 50 members or less) to full sized orchestras (70-100 or more musicians). The terms 'symphonic' and 'philharmonic' are usually reserved to designate such orchestras, thought in practice this naming convention doesn't imply any real difference in terms of repertoire or composition. Orchestras can also be found attached to institutions such as colleges, either of amateur or professional character. In the early days orchestras were often conducted by a playing musician or by a soloist, and they could even perform without a conductor. The increasing size of ensembles, the growing complexity of the music, and the refinement of musical expectations in audiences, all helped to develop the figure of the orchestral conductor, which directs the orchestra through visible hand gestures, besides playing a part in its management.

Komponisten

Adolphe Adam Adolphe Blanc Adolphe David Adrien Talexy Agathe Backer-Grøndahl Alba Rosa Viëtor Alban Berg Albert Roussel Albert Cahen Albert Hermann Dietrich Albert Ketèlbey Aleksander Zarzycki Aleksandr Dargomyzhsky Aleksandr Glazunov Aleksandr Taneyev Aleksandr Winkler Aleksandr Yurasovsky Alessandro Marcello Alessandro Rolla Alessandro Scarlatti Alessandro Stradella Alexander Borodin Alexander Scriabin Alexandre Bernn Alexis Contant Alexis de Castillon Alfred Bruneau Alfredo D'Ambrosio Alphons Czibulka Alphons Diepenbrock Amy Marcy Beach Amy Woodforde-Finden Anatoly Lyadov Anders Wesström Anderssen André Campra André Wormser Andrea Bernasconi Andrea Stefano Fioré Andrey Arends Angelo Bottagisio Anonymous Anthime Donnay Antoine Dessane Anton Arensky Anton Bruckner Anton Eberl Anton Rubinstein Anton Webern Antonín Dvořák Antonio Bazzini Antonio Boroni Antonio Brioschi Antonio Rosetti Antonio Vivaldi Antony Choudens Armand Bolsène Arnold Bax Arnold Schoenberg Arthur Coquard Arthur Foote Arthur H. Bird Arthur Honegger Arthur Sullivan Arturo Toscanini August Bungert August Cahnbley August Conradi August Walter August Winding Baldassare Galuppi Bedřich Smetana Béla Bartók Benedetto Marcello Benjamin Bilse Bernard Zweers Bohuslav Martinů Boris Asafyev Calixa Lavallée Camille Chevillard Camille Saint-Saëns Carel Anton Fodor Carl August Cannabich Carl August Nielsen Carl Binder Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf Carl Faust Carl Friedrich Abel Carl Friedrich Ebers Carl Gottlieb Reissiger Carl Heinrich Carsten Reinecke Carl Loewe Carl Maria von Weber Carl Nielsen Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach Carl Philipp Stamitz Carlo Ferrari Carlo Fiorelli Casimir Anton Cartellieri Cecil Forsyth Cécile Chaminade César Cui César Franck Cesare Bossi Çesk Zadeja Charles Burney Charles Dieupart Charles Gounod Charles Ives Charles Lefebvre Charles Villiers Stanford Charles Wakefield Cadman Charles-Marie Widor Christian Cannabich Christian Gotthilf Tag Christlieb Siegmund Binder Christoph Bach Christoph Ernst Friedrich Weyse Christoph Förster Christoph Graupner Christoph Ludwig Fehre Christoph Willibald Gluck Claude Debussy Claude Desmatins Clément Broutin Cornelis Dopper Daniel Léo Simpson Domenico Belli Domenico Cimarosa Domenico Dall'Oglio Ebenezer Prout Edgardo del Valle de Paz Edmondstoune Duncan Edmund Angerer Édouard Lalo Eduardo Boccalari Edvard Grieg Edward Elgar Edward German Edward MacDowell Emanuel Bach Emanuel Moór Émile Bernard Émile Pessard Émile Waldteufel Emīls Dārziņš Emmanuel Chabrier Engelbert Humperdinck Erik Satie Erkki Melartin Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari Ernest Bloch Ernest Chausson Ernest Louis Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt Ernst Boehe Ernst Eichner Ernst Rudorff Étienne Arnaud Eugen d' Albert Eugène Cools Eugène Dédé Eugène Ysaÿe Evaristo Felice Dall'Abaco Evelyn Bloom Felix Draeseke Felix Mendelssohn Felix Weingartner Ferdinand David Ferdinand Ries Ferdinand Zellbell Jr Ferdinando Falcari Ferruccio Busoni Florent Schmitt Florian Johann Deller Fortunato Chelleri Francesco Araja Francesco Onofrio Manfredini Francesco Venturini Francisco António de Almeida Francisco Magalhães do Valle
Franco Alfano François-Joseph Fétis Frank Bridge Frank V. Van der Stucken Franz Adam Veichtner Franz Anton Hoffmeister Franz Asplmayr Franz Benda Franz Berwald Franz Ignaz Beck Franz Joseph Haydn Franz Liszt Franz Schmidt Franz Schreker Franz Schubert Franz Strauss Frederic Hymen Cowen Frédéric Venua Frederick Corder Frederick Delius Frederick II Frederick Shepherd Converse Friedrich Burgmüller Friedrich Ernst Fesca Friedrich Gottlob Fleischer Friedrich Kuhlau Friedrich Ludwig Aemilius Kunzen Friedrich von Flotow Friedrich Wilhelm Zachow Friedrich Witt Friedrich Zikoff Fritz Arlberg Fritz Volbach Fromental Halévy G. Weingarten Gabriel Fauré Gabriel Pierné Gasparo Angiolini Gasparo Visconti Gaston Salvayre Gaudenzio Comi Georg Carl Bohlmann Georg Christoph Wagenseil Georg Friedrich Händel Georg Gerson Georg Goltermann Georg Joseph Vogler George Butterworth George Enescu George Gershwin George Schleiffarth George Whitefield Chadwick Georges Bizet Georges Cucuël Georges Hüe Gerard von Brucken Fock Giacomo Meyerbeer Gioachino Antonio Rossini Giovanni Andrea Cima Giovanni Battista Costanzi Giovanni Battista Martini Giovanni Bononcini Giovanni Francesco Brusa Giovanni Verocai Girolamo Nicolò Laurenti Giuseppe Valentini Giuseppe Antonio Brescianello Giuseppe Maria Cambini Giuseppe Matteo Alberti Giuseppe Verdi Gottfried Finger Granville Bantock Gregorio Ballabene Guillaume Dumanoir Gustaf Düben Gustav Flügel Gustav Holst Gustav Mahler Gustave Charpentier Hamilton Clarke Hans Hinrich Zielche Hans Huber Hans von Bülow Hans Winderstein Havergal Brian Hector Berlioz Heinrich Esser Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber Heitor Villa-Lobos Henri Cieutat Henri Dallier Henri Duparc Henriette Blanke-Belcher Henry Purcell Herbert Straus Gardner Hermann Bischoff Hideaki Shichida Hjalmar Borgstrøm Howard Brockway Hugo Alfvén Hugo Daffner Hugo Reinhold Hugo Riesenfeld Hugo Wolf Ignatio Fiorillo Ignaz Brüll Ignaz Fränzl Ignaz Moscheles Ignaz Vitzthumb Isaac Albéniz Jacques de Belleville Jacques Ibert Jacques Offenbach James Harvey d' Egville James Reese Europe Jan Blockx Jan Brandts Buys Jan Dismas Zelenka Jan Václav Voříšek Jāzeps Vītols Jean Sibelius Jean-Baptiste Davaux Jean-Baptiste Weckerlin Jean-François Dandrieu Jean-Philippe Rameau Jerome Kern Joachim Raff Joaquín Turina Johan Agrell Johan David Zander Johan Halvorsen Johann Adam Johann Anton André Johann Anton Filtz Johann Baptist Vanhal Johann Christian Bach Johann Evangelist Brandl Johann Franz Xaver Sterkel Johann Friedrich Fasch Johann Georg Albrechtsberger Johann Georg Franz Waßmuth Johann Gottlieb Graun Johann Hermann Schein Johann Ignaz Beyer Johann Joseph Abert Johann Joseph Fux Johann Melchior Molter Johann Nepomuk Hummel Johann Samuel Endler Johann Sebastian Bach Johann Stamitz Johann Strauss Jr Johann Strauss Sr Johann Wenzel Kalliwoda Johann Wilhelm Wilms Johannes Brahms Johannes Frederik Frøhlich John Valentine John Christopher Pepusch John Francis Barnett John Lodge Ellerton John Philip Sousa John Stanley John Stepan Zamecnik José de Cor-de-Lass Josef Bayer Josef Gabriel Rheinberger Josef Suk Joseph Anton Camerloher Joseph Bologne Saint-Georges Joseph Eybler Joseph Gossec Joseph Joachim Joseph Jongen Joseph Lanner Joseph Mayseder Joseph Mazzinghi Joseph Wagner Joseph Weigl
Joseph-Antoine-Joachim Cérutti Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga Juan Francés de Iribarren Jules Bordier Jules Danbé Jules Massenet Jules ten Brink Julián Santos Carrión Julius Fučík Justin Clérice Karl Adolf Lorenz Karl Bleyle Karl Davydov Karl Goldmark Karl Michael Ziehrer Karol Szymanowski Konstantin Antipov Kostia Konstantinoff Kurt Magnus Atterberg Léo Delibes Leó Weiner Léon Boëllmann Léon Du Bois Leopold Damrosch Leopold de Wenzel Leopold Hofmann Leopoldo Miguez Leoš Janáček Lorenzo Carazzi Louis Aubert Louis Constantin Louis Ganne Louis Moreau Gottschalk Louis Sauter Louis Spohr Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray Ludwig Bonvin Ludwig van Beethoven Luigi Boccherini Luigi Cherubini Luigi Maria Viviani Manuel Alejandre Prada Manuel de Falla Marc-Antoine Charpentier Marco Enrico Bossi Maurice Ravel Max Bruch Max Erdmannsdörfer Max Reger Max Zenger Melchior d' Ardespin Melvin Lauf Michael Christian Festing Michael Costa Michael Haydn Michel Corrette Michel Rondeau Michele Esposito Mikalojus Konstantinas Ciurlionis Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka Mily Balakirev Miska Borzó Modest Mussorgsky Monsieur de La Voix Moritz Moszkowski Muzio Clementi Natanael Berg Nicolas Dalayrac Nicolò Celega Niels Gade Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolay Artsybushev Norbert Burgmüller Oscar Fetrás Oskar Böhme Otto Fleischmann Otto Nicolai Ottokar Wöber Ottorino Respighi Pablo de Sarasate Pascal Collasse Pasquale Anfossi Pasquale Mario Costa Paul Dukas Paul Ertel Paul Juon Paul Lacôme d'Estalenx Paul Vidal Paul von Klenau Paul Wranitzky Percy Eastman Fletcher Percy Grainger Philip Cipriani Hambly Potter Philipp Scharwenka Philippe Flon Pierre Beauchamp Pierre Coindreau Pietro Locatelli Pietro Chiarini Placidus von Camerloher Procida Bucalossi Pyotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky Ralph Vaughan Williams René de Boisdeffre Reynaldo Hahn Riccardo Drigo Riccardo Zandonai Richard Charke Richard Eilenberg Richard Kram Richard Strauss Richard Wagner Richard Wüerst Robert Bremner Robert Edward Bridson Robert Fuchs Robert G. Patterson Robert Schumann Robert Volkmann Robert Woodcock Rodolphe Kreutzer Roffredo Caetani Rudolf Bial Rudolph Aronson Rudolph Bay Rudolph Bergh Ruggiero Leoncavallo Şafak Alıcıoğlu Samuel Ackerman Samuel Capricornus Samuel Coleridge-Taylor Saverio Mercadante Sebastian Bodinus Sergei Prokofiev Sergei Rachmaninoff Sergei Taneyev Sergey Yuferov Sergey Vasilenko Siegfried Wagner Sigfrid Karg-Elert Sigismund Neukomm Simoni dall Croubelis Stanko Premrl Stefano Vicelli Théo Ysaÿe Théodore Dubois Thomas Täglichsbeck Thomas Alexander Erskine Thomas Attwood Thomas Augustine Arne Tomaso Albinoni Tor Aulin Ugo Afferni Václav Veit Various Vasily Zolotarev Verpré Victor Alphonse Duvernoy Victor Bendix Victor Herbert Vincent d' Indy Vincenzo Bellini W. Weide Waldemar von Baussnern Walter Braunfels Wilhelm Berger Wilhelm Stenhammar William Babell William Boyce William Orville Fiske William Sterndale Bennett Woldemar Bargiel Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Władysław Zeleński Xaver Scharwenka Xinghai Xian Yasunori Sago Yevgeny Alenev Zdeněk Fibich

Performers