Martial Caillebotte was a French photographer and composer who was also one of the "Fathers of Philately" entered on the Roll of Distinguished Philatelists in 1921. He was the younger brother of the noted artist Gustave Caillebotte (1848-1894) and they both inherited a fortune from their father, enabling them to pursue their respective passions throughout life. He married Marie Minoret, June 7, 1887. In 1888 his wife gave birth to a son Jean, and then in 1889 a daughter Geneviève. Geneviève inherited the majority of unsold paintings by Gustave Caillebotte.
Along with his brother, he formed a joint stamp collection around 1878 that grew to be one of the most important of its time but disposed of it in 1887, after about ten years following his marriage. The purchaser, with whom they worked on the plating, or reconstruction of the original sheet, of important issues including the Sydney View two-pence stamp of Australia, was Thomas Tapling, whose collection, including the Caillebotte collection, is part of the philatelic collection of the British Library