Gustaf Düben (also Gustav) was a Swedish organist and composer.
Düben was born and died in Stockholm. He was the grandson of the German-born Andreas Düben, who had been organist at the Thomaskirche in Leipzig, and son of the composer and court kapellmeister Anders Düben (the Younger). In 1663, he succeeded his father as both hovkapellmästare, director of the Royal Swedish Court Orchestra, and organist of the German St Gertrud Church in Stockholm.
He was the father of four children: Gustav von Düben the Younger (1659-1726), Joachim von Düben the Elder (1671-1730), Emerentia von Düben (1669-1743) and Anders von Düben (the Younger) (1673-1738). Gustaf the younger and Anders the Younger appears to have been the only of his children who followed in his father's footsteps as a composer, courtier and eventually kapellmeister.
The Düben collection of manuscripts includes many unicae of German baroque music.